世界银行-信息和通信技术采购易受欺诈和腐败影响(英)-2023.8-17页.pdf

2023-09-06 22:01
世界银行-信息和通信技术采购易受欺诈和腐败影响(英)-2023.8-17页.pdf

GOVERNANCEANDTHEDIGITALECONOMYINAFRICATECHNICALBACKGROUNDPAPERSERIESVulnerabilitiesofICTProcurementtoFraudandCorruptionPublicDisclosureAuthorizedPublicDisclosureAuthorizedPublicDisclosureAuthorizedPublicDisclosureAuthorizedCopyright©2021TheWorldBank1818HStreetNWWashingtonDC20433Telephone:202-473-1000Internet:www.worldbank.orgDisclaimerThisworkisaproductofthestaffofTheWorldBank.Thefindings,interpretations,andconclusionsexpressedinthisworkdonotnecessarilyreflecttheviewsofTheWorldBank,itsBoardofExecutiveDirectors,orthegovernmentstheyrepresent.RightsandPermissionsThematerialinthisworkissubjecttocopyright.Anyqueriesonrightsandlicenses,includingsubsidiaryrights,shouldbeaddressedto:OfficeofthePublisherTheWorldBank1818HStreetNWWashington,DC20433USAFax:202-522-2422E-mail:pubrights@worldbank.org.GOVERNANCEANDTHEDIGITALECONOMYINAFRICATECHNICALBACKGROUNDPAPERSERIESVulnerabilitiesofICTProcurementtoFraudandCorruptionHuntLaCasciaandMichaelKrameriiiAcknowledgmentsThisBackgroundNotewaspreparedbyHuntLaCascia(SeniorProcurementSpecialist,GovernanceProcurement)andMichaelKramer(Consultant)underthedirectionofJamesAnderson(LeadGovernanceSpecialist).ItbenefittedfromcommentsfromMariaDelfinaAlcaide(GovernanceDataConsultant),JustinValentine(Valent–ProcurementConsultant),andTravisMells(Valent–ProcurementConsultant).ThereportbenefitedfromtheinputsofthefollowingWorldBankcolleagueswhokindlyagreedtoserveaspeerreviewers:WalidDhouibi,KnutLeipold,KhalidBinAnjum,RajeshKumar,HibaTahboubandCareyKluttzfromtheOpenContractingPartnership.TheBackgroundNotebenefitedimmenselyfromtheparticipation,assistance,andinsightsfromotherexperts.TheteamisespeciallygratefulforthesupportoftheGlobalGovernancePractice(GGP),theandthepriorworkofgovernance,finance,andprocurementcolleaguesinboththeGGPandOperationsPolicyandCountryServices(OPCS).WearegratefultoMariaLopezforcoverdesign.ivCommonAbbreviationsandDefinedTermsThissectionexplainsthecommontermsandabbreviationsusedinthispaper.Abbreviation/TermFullTerminology/DefinitionFCPAForeignCorruptPracticesActHPHewlettPackardIBMInternationalBusinessMachinesICTInformationandCommunicationsTechnologyIFMISIntegratedFinancialManagementInformationSystemOCCRPOrganizedCrimeandCorruptionReportingProjectSECSecurityandExchangeCommissionU.K.UnitedKingdomUSUnitedStatesvTableofContents1Introduction.....12ExamplesofActualCasesofCorruption,BidRigging,CollusionandFraudintheProcurementofICTSystems...22.1CorruptionCases...22.1.1PublicizedCases..22.1.2PubliclyReportedInvestigations.42.1.3WorldBankSanctionsCase...42.1.4OtherUnpublishedCases42.2FraudCases.....62.3ProcurementAbuses...63BestPracticestoReducetheVulnerabilityofITProcurementstoCorruptPractices..64ANNEX..74.1ConflictsofInterest.....74.2BidRigging.74.3CollusiveBidding...84.4False,InflatedandDuplicateInvoices84.5FictitiousContractor(PhantomVendor)...95Bibliography...10TechnicalBackgroundNote:VulnerabilitiesofICTProcurementtoFraudandCorruption11IntroductionInformationCommunicationTechnology(ICT)contractsarepronetofraud,corruption,

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